I’ve found these wax mallows (Malvaceae, Malvaviscus spp.) in both Savannah and Costa Rica. The species’ range of M. arboreus – the likely Georgia resident – extends into South America, but there is an endemic to Costa Rica — M. palmanus. The specimen from Las Alturas has pubescent stems and sepals, but I’m not sure if this is characteristic.
What creates these small, sand, chimneys on the flow-facing surface of boulders? These were found in Rio Bella Vista, a fast-moving, cold, cascading stream in Las Alturas.
Tropical, pre-montane wet forest with tree ferns, strangler figs, cerdro (Cedrella spp.), and some avocado relatives.
Parasitoid larvae, probably from a wasp, have emerged from the black wounds of this caterpillar, perhaps a hesperidae butterfly, and pupated.
Check out the trachea (the branching gas exchange organs observed through the skin of the caterpillar) and the punctures from the larval exits!
Found along Sendero Echandi.